Medu Vada Recipe (Black Gram Fritters)

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Medu Vada are crispy, fluffy, soft and delicious lentil fritters from the South Indian cuisine. If sweet breakfast isn’t your thing, try this recipe for savory spiced donuts made with black gram lentils and aromatic spices. Traditionally paired with Sambar and Coconut Chutney, these make for a comforting, filling and satisfying breakfast or snack.

top shot of medu vada stacked neatly in green lined beige colored plate with cups filled with coconut chutney and sambar on the top

About Vada

The term “vada” refers to fritters made from deep frying either lentil batter or a vegetable stuffing encased inside a lentil batter.

In the Indian cuisine, we have myriad types of vada. They all have different recipes and methods of preparation. The lentils are soaked and then ground to make a batter. In some variations like Batata Vada the batter is made from dry gram flour rather than whole lentils.

While the term vada is often used interchangeably with medu vada, it should be noted that medu vada is part of the vada family, but not all vada are medu vada. Example this Dal Vada made with a spiced, savory chana dal batter.

About Medu Vada

Medu vada is one of my favorite snacks of all time. I loved them as a kid, and they clearly withstand the test of time because they are still one of my most beloved dishes. I love most South Indian snacks because they remind me of my growing up days.

NOTE: Want more delicious South Indian breakfast tiffin recipes? Try my Rava Dosa, Idli or Masala Dosa!

Medu vada are essentially savory donuts made with black gram, herbs, coconut and spices. The word medu means soft and vada means fritters in Kannada language. This particular type of fritter is also known as:

  • Urad Dal Vada in Hindi
  • Garelu in Telugu
  • Uzhunnu Vada in Malayalam
  • Uddina Vada in Kannada
  • Medhu Vadai, Ulundu Vadai in Tamil

The hero ingredient here is urad dal (skinned black gram), but the herbs and spices also add a savory and spicy quality to these fritters that is absolutely addictive. The hotel-style medu vada also includes onions, which lend a lovely sweetness.

NOTE: If you are making these for kids, you can consider adding extra veggies like grated carrots, shredded cabbage, or grated beetroot to sneak in a little extra nutrition. Hidden vegetables are still vegetables!

I especially like serving the crispy, fluffy medu vada the traditional way: dunked in hot sambar with coconut chutney by the side. This popular, satisfying meal that is also called sambar vada with coconut chutney is very famous all over India. It tastes awesome, so is loved by many.

Whenever I make medu vada, I go the extra length to make sambar. While you’re free to serve them with only coconut chutney, vada sambar is one of those joyful foods that bring up many wonderful memories. Don’t you agree? NOTE: You can enjoy piping hot vada with any variety of Sambar.

But if you are pressed for time, simply serve with coconut chutney, mint coriander chutney or tomato ketchup. You could also use any savory or spicy dip of your choice. Remember that medu vada are fritters, so they’re going to taste delicious no matter what!

Mastering this classic Medhu Vadai recipe does take time and some experience. Making the doughnut shape from the batter is the most difficult step. Not to worry: I also struggled with it in my earlier days of cooking! Below I share all my tips and tricks that I have learned over the years. I hope you enjoy making them as much as I do.

Are you ready to make the absolute best vada recipe with a light, porous texture inside and crispy on the outside? Just take a look at the photo below. Isn’t the texture incredibly fluffy and soft like a cloud? Yum!

Come along with me in the kitchen and I’ll show you how to make this classic South Indian snack with easy to follow step-by-step photos.

two halves of medu vada showing the fluffy texture placed on a layer of neatly stacked 5 vada in a cream colored shallow plate
Step-by-Step Guide

How to make Medu Vada

Preparation for Vada Recipe

1. Rinse 1 cup urad dal (husked and split or whole black gram) a few times in water. Then soak the lentils in 2.5 to 3 cups water for at least 4 to 5 hours or up to overnight.

Preferably use unpolished urad dal to make this vada recipe.

soaked urad dal in water

2. Drain and discard the water. Add the soaked urad dal to a grinder jar. Add 3 to 4 tablespoons fresh water or as needed. Just be sure not to make the batter too thin!

Do not add too much water while grinding. The batter should be like a soft moist dough but yet light and fluffy.

It should end up looking like a cake batter rather than a crepe batter. I recommend blending in steps and adding water as needed to achieve the right consistency.

urad lentils in a blender

Grinding or Blending Lentils

3. Begin to grind or blend the urad dal to a smooth batter. The batter should be fluffy and thick.

You can grind in two batches or one lot depending on the capacity and size of your blender or mixer-grinder.

Scrape down the sides of the blender as you go to ensure all the lentils gets blended to a uniform consistency.

urad dal batter with a spatula for scraping the side in a blender

4. Continue to grind at intervals by scraping the sides with a spatula. If your mixer or grinder becomes hot, then wait for a few minutes until it cools down.

blending vada batter

5. Continue to grind or blend until you achieve a smooth, fluffy batter. Remember there should be no fine grits or chunks of urad dal in the batter.

urad dal medu vada batter in a blender

6. Remove the batter into a big bowl or vessel. Then briskly whip with a spatula, spoon or a wired whisk for 2 to 3 minutes. This aerates the batter and gives it a light, fluffy texture.

vada batter being whisked with a spatula in a steel bowl

7. In the below photo you see the vada batter that has been aerated by continuously whisking it for few minutes.

fluffy medu vada batter in bowl after whisking

8. A quick way to check the perfect and right consistency of the batter is to add a small spoon of it in a bowl of water. The batter should float and remain intact. If it floats and does not get dissolved, then you have achieved the right consistency. 

If it sinks, this means that your batter is not fluffy enough (with not enough air bubbles trapped in it) or is too thin.

If the batter is too thin, then add some semolina (fine rava or suji) or urad dal flour or rice flour to it to help thicken it up. Rava or suji also helps in giving a crispy texture to the vada.

testing a small portion of vada batter in a white bowl filled with water

Making Medu Vada Batter

9. Measure and keep all the ingredients ready for making the batter. To the batter, add the following spices and herbs:

  • 1 tablespoon chopped curry leaves
  • 1 teaspoon finely chopped green chillies
  • 1 teaspoon finely chopped ginger
  • 1 pinch asafoetida
  • ½ teaspoon cumin seeds
  • ½ teaspoon lightly crushed black pepper – can use whole peppercorns as well. The addition of black pepper gives a good taste but is optional.
  • ½ teaspoon salt or as required

You can also add ⅓ cup finely chopped onions or shallots; 2 tablespoons of chopped coriander leaves and ¼ cup chopped fresh coconut pieces.

spices and herbs added to medu vada batter

10. Mix the batter well with the herbs, spices and salt. You do not have to ferment the batter. You can use it right away. Check the taste of the batter and, if needed, add some salt.

spices and herbs mixed with the medu vada batter

11. Take a bowl of water. Apply some water from the bowl on both your palms. Take some batter in your right palm from the bowl. Give it a round shape by moving it in a circular position in the right hand.

taken a round portion of vada batter on the fingers

12. With your thumb make a hole in the center. You can also use banana leaves or zip lock bags to give the medu vada its doughnut shape.

TIP: If the batter sticks and you are not able to shape it then add 1 to 2 tablespoons of rice flour to the batter and mix well. This happens if the batter has become slightly thin which means that there is more water in it. 

prepared a doughnut shape from the vada batter on the palm

Frying Medhu Vadai

13. In a kadai, heat oil over medium heat. Once the oil becomes hot, slide the medu vada gently into the hot oil. Be careful here! The oil can sputter and pop over quite a distance, so I recommend wearing an apron and long sleeves to protect your skin and clothes. 

TIP: If you do not care about the appearance of the doughnut shape of the medu vada, then just drop spoonfuls of the batter directly in the oil.

Do not overcrowd the pan. Work in batches, considering the size of your pan as your guide.

shaped vada being fried in oil

14. Once the vada are slightly golden and the batter has firmed up and looks crispy, then gently turn over with a slotted spoon and continue to fry. The oil should not exceed 190 degrees celsius (375F), or fall below 175 degrees celsius (350F).

Remember: oil that is too hot will quickly brown the vadas from the outside, but they will remain uncooked from inside. Oil that isn’t hot enough will make the vada absorb too much oil and become greasy.

medu vada getting fried in oil

15. Continue to fry the vada, turning over as needed.

vada getting fried in oil are becoming more golden

16. Fry the medhu vadai till crisp and golden.

crisp and golden medu vada in hot oil

17. Once the medhu vadai is crisp and golden, then remove with a slotted spoon to drain the extra oil. Fry the rest of vadai in the same manner.

removing medu vada with a slotted spoon

18. Drain them on kitchen tissues to remove extra oil. This way shape the vada batter and fry them in hot oil.

medu vada placed on kitchen paper towels

19. Serve medu vada hot or warm with sambar and coconut chutney. Enjoy!

Sambar Vada

To make sambar vada, you can make any of the sambar varieties I have listed below. Depending on the veggie stock in the kitchen, I make sambar with just one veggie or a mix of various of them.

Vada and sambar are a match made in heaven, so even if you make your sambar without any veggie, it will still be a joy to eat.

  1. Sambar
  2. Hotel Style Sambar
  3. Onion Sambar
  4. Okra Sambar
  5. Radish Sambar
  6. Arachuvitta Sambar


Why are my vada greasy?

Uh-oh, sounds like one of two things happened. If the batter is thin, then the vada will absorb too much oil during frying. But even if the batter is perfect, you need to heat the oil properly – if it is warm or not hot enough, the vada will also turn out greasy.

Why are my vada hard?

Ooops, sounds like you didn’t blend/grind the batter enough. When the urad dal is almost the consistency of whipped cream, you have reached the right consistency. Be sure to use a powerful (750+ watt or more) grinder or blender or a table-top wet grinder for the best results.

Also, please be sure to soak the urad dal for at least 4 to 5 hours or even overnight. If the dal aren’t well soaked, they will not grind to a soft, fluffy batter.

Ensure that you use fresh urad dal in its shelf period. Aged or old urad lentils will take a lot of time to grind or blend and can also make the vada dense or hard.

Why are my vada flat?

Sounds like your batter was too thin. Try adding a bit of rice flour or semolina to the batter to thicken it up; it should be the consistency of a thick cake batter or like whipped cream.

Can I make medu vada ahead of time?

As with most donuts or fried goods, these savory fritters are best served hot from the frying pan (after draining oil, of course). That said, any leftovers will keep for up to a day. To reheat, warm them in an oven until hot to the touch.

You can also make the batter up to 1 day ahead of time. Keep it in the fridge until you are ready to fry. Let the batter come to room temperature before frying.

Is this vada recipe scaleable?

Absolutely; it can either be halved or doubled depending on how many vada you want to make!

What is the best oil for frying vada?

I use either sunflower or ground nut oil for deep frying, but any neutral oil with a high smoke point will work. Safflower, vegetable, or peanut oil are all acceptable substitutes.

vada sambar in a beige colored shallow plate with medu vada placed on sambar

More Popular South Indian Snacks!

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medu vada stacked neatly in green lined beige colored plate

Medu Vada Recipe (Uzhunnu Vada)

Medu vada are crisp and fried doughnut shaped fritters made with black gram (urad dal), herbs and spices. These urad dal vada are also known as Garelu in Andhra, Uzhunnu Vada in Kerala, Uddina Vada in Kannada and Medhu Vadai, Ulundu Vadai in Tamil.
4.83 from 81 votes
Prep Time 4 hrs
Cook Time 40 mins
Total Time 4 hrs 40 mins
Cuisine South Indian
Course Breakfast, Snacks
Diet Vegan
Difficulty Level Moderate
Servings 14 Medu Vada


  • 1 cup urad dal (husked and split or whole black gram) – 200 grams
  • 2.5 to 3 cups water – for soaking
  • 3 to 4 tablespoons water – for grinding or blending lentils
  • ½ teaspoon cumin seeds
  • ½ teaspoon black peppercorns whole or crushed
  • 1 tablespoon chopped curry leaves or 7 to 8 curry leaves
  • cup finely chopped onions – optional
  • 1 teaspoon chopped green chilies or 1 to 2 green chilies
  • 1 teaspoon finely chopped ginger
  • 1 pinch asafoetida (hing) – optional
  • ¼ cup chopped coconut pieces – optional
  • 2 tablespoons chopped coriander leaves – optional
  • ½ teaspoon salt or as required
  • oil for deep frying, as required


Making Vada Batter

  • Rinse urad dal a couple of times in fresh water. Then soak the lentils for 4 hours or overnight.
  • Grind or blend the soaked lentils to a smooth batter with water.
  • If the batter becomes watery, then the instant relief would be to add some semolina or urad dal flour or rice flour to it.
  • Add all the spices, herbs and salt. Mix well.
  • Take a bowl of water. Apply some water from the bowl on both your palms. Take some batter in your right hand from the bowl. Give it a round shape by moving it around.
  • With your thumb make a hole in the center. You can also use banana leaves or zip lock bags to give the medu vada its doughnut shape.

Frying Medu Vada

  • In a kadai (wok) or pan heat oil for deep frying. Keep the heat to medium. 
  • Once the oil becomes hot, slid the vada gently and carefully into the hot oil.
  • Shape the batter this way and gently slid them in the oil. Don't overcrowd the kadai or pan with the vada.
  • Once the vada is slightly golden then gently turn over with a slotted spoon and continue to fry.
  • Fry them till crisp and golden. The oil should be not very hot, but medium hot. You want the vadas to be cooked from inside. Very hot oil will quickly brown the vadas from outside but they will remain uncooked from inside. Less hot oil will make the medu vada to absorb too much oil. Even if the batter is thin then also the medu vadas will absorb too much oil.
  • Fry all the medu vada this way till they become evenly browned and crisp.
  • Drain them on kitchen tissue to remove excess oil.
  • Serve the medhu vadai, hot or warm with sambar and coconut chutney. It can also be served with other dips like mint chutney, coriander chutney, tomato sauce or onion chutney, tomato chutney etc.
  • One of the best combination is sambar vada where these medu vadai are dunked in piping hot sambar and served with a side of coconut chutney. This vada sambar meal is finished with steaming hot filter coffee.


  • Ensure to use fresh urad dal so that you make the best fluffy medu vada. Old or aged urad dal will be difficult to grind or blend and can make for a dense vada. Preferably use unpolished urad dal to make this vada recipe.
  • Make sure to grind or blend the lentils really well. The batter should be smooth, fluffy and light having the consistency of a whipped cream with soft peaks or like a thick cake batter. There should be no fine grits or chunks of the lentils in the batter.
  • When making medu vada recipe for any Hindu festival fasting, then don’t add onions.
  • The vada recipe can be scaled to make a larger batch to feed a crowd. 
  • Various herbs and spices can be added to the batter to make the vada more flavorful. Choose from cumin seeds, crushed black pepper, green chillies, crushed coriander seeds, curry leaves, coriander leaves, mint leaves and ginger. 

Nutrition Info (Approximate values)

Nutrition Facts
Medu Vada Recipe (Uzhunnu Vada)
Amount Per Serving (1 Medu Vada)
Calories 72 Calories from Fat 27
% Daily Value*
Fat 3g5%
Saturated Fat 1g6%
Polyunsaturated Fat 1g
Monounsaturated Fat 3g
Sodium 89mg4%
Potassium 5mg0%
Carbohydrates 8g3%
Fiber 3g13%
Sugar 1g1%
Protein 4g8%
Vitamin A 86IU2%
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) 1mg67%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 1mg59%
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 24mg120%
Vitamin B6 1mg50%
Vitamin C 43mg52%
Vitamin E 1mg7%
Vitamin K 1µg1%
Calcium 21mg2%
Vitamin B9 (Folate) 248µg62%
Iron 1mg6%
Magnesium 2mg1%
Phosphorus 1mg0%
Zinc 1mg7%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet.

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This medu vada recipe from the blog archives first published in October 2011 has been republished and updated on 18 July 2021.

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Welcome to Dassana's Veg Recipes. I share vegetarian recipes from India & around the World. Having been cooking for decades and with a professional background in cooking & baking, I help you to make your cooking journey easier with my tried and tested recipes showcased with step by step photos & plenty of tips & suggestions.

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  1. Hi Dassana thank you for the wonderful work could you teach us how to make vegetarian baked ziti.

    1. Thank you Bhavya. Yes the recipe is in my drafts and one which I make often.

  2. I love all recipes and also try them at home
    They all are with clear description and easy for learners. With the help of photos it gives clear picture and texture to understand.
    Thank you
    I just love your page.4 stars

    1. Thanks a lot Aayushi. Glad to know that the details and photos are helpful. Most welcome.

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